Vocabulary

Word of the day
Служби визначення місця розташування
служби визначення місцерозташування використовують технології GPS. За їх допомогою користувачі можуть повідомляти про своє фізичне місцезнаходження іншим користувачам через соціальні мережі або програми на мобільному телефоні. Деякі застосунки використовують служби визначення місцерозташування, щоб допомогти користувачам зорієнтуватися в маршруті або знайти різні локації, як-от ресторан чи найближчий банкомат.
Б
Баґ
Збій у роботі програми. Ми тестуємо сервіс «Дія» та виправляємо баґи, щоб кожен українець міг скористатися порталом.
Г
Гуглити
Шукати інформацію за допомогою пошукового сервісу Google Загугліть будь-яке запитання, і ви гарантовано знайдете на нього відповідь
Гіфка
Це рухлива картинка без звуку у Viber, Telegram, WhatsApp, Facebook Надсилайте гіфки, щоб розвеселити співрозмовника
Ґ
Ґеймер
Активний гравець у комп'ютерні ігри. Ґеймери грають на аматорському та професійному рівні в кіберспорті.
Д
Дайджест
Стислий виклад подій, добірка. А ви вже підписані на щотижневий дайджест новин Мінцифри?
З
Зашквар
Ганебний вчинок, що псує репутацію. Наприклад, ляп ведучого під час прямого ефіру.
К
Комент, коментар
Висловлення думок під публікаціями в соціальних мережах Пишіть коментарі під постами у вашій стрічці
Контент
[з англ. наповнення] Інформація на інтернет-ресурсах. Буває фото-, відео- та аудіоконтент.
Л
Лайкати
Вподобувати публікацію в соціальній мережі Ставте публікаціям лайк, якщо вам сподобався пост
Лайфхак
Корисна порада. Шукайте лайфхаки в пошуковому сервісі Google та YouTube.
Ламер
Недосвідчений користувач комп'ютерних технологій. Синонім до слова «чайник».
Лол
[з англ. гучно регочу] Як використати: пишіть «лол» у відповідь на смішне повідомлення
М
Мейнстрим
Те, що на часі Мейнстримною може стати музика, одяг, субкультура
Мем
Інформація, яка швидко стає популярною в мережі. Це може бути зображення, текст чи курйозне відео. Як використати: діліться мемами, щоб підняти настрій
Меседж
[англ. повідомлення] Cаме так називають повідомлення у соціальних мережах. Меседж може бути текстовим, голосовим, у відеоформаті, як фото, ілюстрація чи навіть смайлик...
Месенджер
Програми для обміну повідомленнями в мережі. Месенджери можна завантажити на смартфон або користуватися ними на компютері. Месенджери дуже популярні у всьому світі, адже в них можна листуватися, дзвонити, ділитися фото і відео, надсилати смішні стикери і смайлики. Найчастіше використовують такі месенджери: Viber, Telegram, WhatsApp, месенджер від Facebook Найчастіше використовують такі месенджери: Viber, Telegram, WhatsApp, месенджер від Facebook
П
Попсокет
Приклеєний до задньої панелі телефона диск. З ним комфортніше тримати телефон у руках.
Пост
[допис, публікація] Це інформація, яку користувач розміщує публічно у соціальній мережі. Пости можна шерити, коментувати, лайкати, видаляти
Програми однорангових програм
це програми, які запускаються на персональному комп'ютері чи іншому цифровому пристрої та передають файли, музику чи відео до інших користувачів в інтернеті. Мережі однорангових зв'язків з'єднують окремі комп'ютери для обміну файлами.
Програмне забезпечення з відкритим вихідним кодом
програма чи набір програм з вільним доступом до інструментарію, де користувачі можуть читати, вносити зміни (відповідно до ліцензійної угоди) та створювати нові версії програмного забезпечення.
Прокрутка
форма подання інформації, за якої вміст (текст, зображення) рухається вертикально або горизонтально. Таким чином, прокрутка не змінює вмісту, але пересуває інформацію на екрані.
Пропускна здатність
обсяг даних, що може бути відправлений через інтернет-з'єднання. Вимірюється в бітах за секунду (bps) або мегабітах за секунду (mbps). Що вища пропускна здатність, то більша швидкість інтернету, а отже, ви витрачаєте менше часу на завантаження вебсторінок, файлів та буферизацію потокового відео.
Пряма трансляція (стримінг)
це передання аудіо чи відеофайлів через підключений до інтернету комп'ютер або мобільний пристрій у режимі реального часу (онлайн). Глядачі також можуть прослуховувати / переглядати такі файли в режимі реального часу без завантаження.
Р
Рекламне програмне забезпечення
це форма програмного забезпечення, що фіксує онлайн-звички користувача в інтернеті і відображає рекламу.
С
Сentralized exchange
Centralized exchanges (CEXs) are platforms with a "central governing body" that regulates the operation of the exchange. CEXs act as intermediaries between users who want to buy or sell crypto, i.e., users don’t exchange assets with each other directly. Most exchanges support fiat currencies. This allows users to top up their accounts with traditional currencies using bank transfers or other methods.
Сirculating supply
Circulating supply indicates how many tokens are currently in circulation. This number increases when new assets are issued, and decreases when tokens are burned.
Сontent addressing
Content addressing is a method of identifying and accessing data using a unique identifier, which is the result of a hash function from the data content itself.
Сyber hygiene
Cyber hygiene is not so much about actions taken to protect against cyberattacks, but knowledge about information security and safety on the internet.
Сybersecurity
Cybersecurity is about protecting the interests of individuals, citizens, society, and the state from potential threats that may arise when using cyberspace. This includes a set of tips, tech solutions, and processes that help protect critical systems and data from unauthorized access.
Свайпати
Перегортати від однієї сторіз до іншої Інколи їх буває багато, тому коли стане нудно, сміливо свайпайте далі
Секс-шантаж
це форма шантажу, коли злочинець загрожує розкрити інтимний контент своєї жертви, якщо та не поступиться вимогам злочинців. Зазвичай ці вимоги стосуються грошей, інтимних зображень або сексуальних послуг.
Секстинг
це пересилання особистих фотографій, повідомлень інтимного змісту за допомогою сучасних засобів зв'язку: стільникових телефонів, електронної пошти, соціальних мереж.
Селфі
Автопортрет, зроблений за допомогою камери смартфона
Сервер
це комп'ютер, який надає дані або інформацію іншим комп'ютерам через локальну мережу (LAN) або широку локальну мережу (WAN).
Серфінг в інтернеті
це перехід від вебсторінки до вебсторінки подібно до перемикання каналів на телебаченні.
Скриншот
Знімок екрана комп'ютера чи смартфона Скриншоти зберігаються в галереї смартфона, їх можна шерити
Скіл
[з англ. навичка] Набуте вміння Розвивайте свої цифрові скіли
Служби визначення місця розташування
служби визначення місцерозташування використовують технології GPS. За їх допомогою користувачі можуть повідомляти про своє фізичне місцезнаходження іншим користувачам через соціальні мережі або програми на мобільному телефоні. Деякі застосунки використовують служби визначення місцерозташування, щоб допомогти користувачам зорієнтуватися в маршруті або знайти різні локації, як-от ресторан чи найближчий банкомат.
Смайли, емодзі
Схематичне зображення людського обличчя, предметів, тварин і явищ Додавайте в повідомлення, коментарі, пости
Смартфон
Категорія телефонів, які мають можливості, наближені до комп'ютера
Соціальна мережа
це інтернет-ресурси для спілкування та обміну інформацією, як-от Facebook, Instagram та Twitter.
Спам
це небажані електронні повідомлення, часто комерційного характеру.
Спливні вікна (попап)
це невеликі вікна, які з’являються на передньому плані сторінки браузера. На деяких сайтах вони є елементом служби чату або підтримки.
Спуфінг (підробка повідомлень)
це тактика видавання себе за когось з метою отримання доступу до конфіденційних даних або банківських рахунків. Може містити спуфінг IP-адреси (відправлення повідомлень на комп'ютери з використанням IP-адреси довіреного джерела), email-спуфінг (підробка заголовка листів для маскування справжнього відправника) та інші.
Стикер
Це статична картинка у Viber, Telegram, WhatsApp, Facebook Надсилайте стикери, щоб яскравіше виразити емоції
Сторіз
Тимчасові пости, що зникають через добу після публікації Додавайте у сторіз Instagram та Facebook фото чи короткі відео
Стрім
Прямий ефір в Інтернеті. Стримте в Instagram і Facebook.
Т
Тег (затегати)
це слово або група слів, що використовується для опису та категоризації зображення, статті чи відео в інтернеті. Позначення тегом дозволяє знайти необхідне пізніше за допомогою пошукової системи. Теги зазвичай застосовують на вебсайтах і в службах соціальних мереж, але також можуть використовувати для іншого онлайн-контенту.
Тренд
Тенденція. Тренд 2023 — навчатися цифрової грамотності
Тролити
Глузувати, підколювати, провокувати конфлікт у мережі.
Тролінг
це тип спілкування між користувачами, навмисне написання свідомо провокаційного коментаря або посту в очікуванні реакції інших користувачів на це. Публікація чи коментар можуть бути націленими на людину через її расу, релігію, етнічну належність, стать, сексуальну орієнтацію або бути дискримінаційними через інші причини.
Троянські програми (трояни/троянці)
це тип програми, який часто має вигляд справжнього під час завантаження, але насправді використовується кіберзлочинцями, щоб отримати доступ до вашого пристрою. Вони можуть шпигувати за пристроєм або впливати на його продуктивність, а також красти або пошкоджувати приватні дані.
Ф
Файли кукі
це невеликий файл, який створюється вебсайтом під час відвідування та надсилається на комп'ютер користувача. Кукі дозволяють вебсайтам відстежувати ваші відвідування та активність, що може приносити користь. Наприклад, якщо ви робите покупки онлайн, файл кукі може зберігати товари у вашому кошику.
Фактчекінг
це перевірка сумнівних фактів та новин, яка має на меті виявити невідповідності між цими фактами та дійсністю.
Фейк-новина
це неправдива інформація, створена в такий спосіб, що має вигляд достовірного новинного репортажу.
Флешмоб
Запланована масштабна акція. Бувають онлайн- та офлайн-флешмоби.
Фільтр
це спосіб управління доступом до онлайн-контенту. Наприклад, фільтр може обмежити доступ до інтернету в певний час доби або обмежити вид контенту, який користувачі можуть переглядати. Наприклад, функція Батьківського контролю дозволяє застосувати фільтрування забороненого контенту.
Фішинг
це один з видів інтернет-шахрайства, метою якого є отримання даних користувачів: персональних даних, банківської інформації тощо. Фішингові дії часто змушують користувачів самостійно розкривати свої конфіденційні дані, наприклад, надсилають електронні листи з пропозиціями підтвердити реєстрацію облікового запису, що містять посилання на вебсайт в інтернеті, зовнішній вигляд якого повністю копіює дизайн відомих ресурсів.
Х
Хайп
Робити щось на публіку, провокуючи скандал
Хакер
це особа, яка «зламує» комп'ютерні системи, тобто намагається отримати доступ, щоб порушити їх роботу, вкрасти інформацію чи вчинити незаконні дії.
Хейтер
[з англ. ненависник] Хейтери безпідставно критикують інших та лишають гнівні коментарі під постами.
Хештег
це слово або фраза, що починається із символу #. За допомогою хештегу легко ідентифікувати повідомлення на певну тему в соціальних мережах, зокрема в Instagram чи Twitter. Хештеги дозволяють людям легко знаходити і відстежувати цікаві для них теми.
Хмарні обчислення
це технологія, завдяки якій доступ до даних та програм здійснюється онлайн без фізичного завантаження в пам’ять комп’ютера. Хмарна технологія зберігає дані та програми на своєму сервері, звідки вони надходять до користувача.
Ч
Чат
це сервіс, де люди спілкуються між собою швидкими повідомленнями в режимі реального часу. Чат може бути розміщений як на сайті, так і в окремому застосунку. До чату можуть приєднатися лише зареєстровані користувачі. Повідомлення, які користувачі публікують, можуть переглядати всі учасники чату.
Челендж
[з англ. виклик, завдання] Можна кидати челендж самому собі або іншим (Ice Bucket Challenge).
Ш
Шерити
Надсилати іншим користувачам певну інформацію в мережі: дописи, сторіз, відео, фото Шерте публічно на свою сторінку або приватно — в особисті повідомлення
Широкосмугове з'єднання
це доступ до інтернету з високою швидкістю передання даних за кількома каналами одночасно. Надається провайдерами через мережі оптоволокна, технології ADSL\DSL або бездротову інфраструктуру.
Ю
Юзер
Користувач комп'ютерних технологій. Навчайтеся цифрової грамотності та ставайте досвідченими юзерами.
A
ADSL
(Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) a method of Internet access that enables the exchange of more data than the DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) standard. The advantage of the technology is different data reception and transmission speeds. This is convenient for the user because the amount of information received from the Internet is usually much larger than that sent to it."
AML
AML (anti-money laundering) is a set of measures aimed at countering money laundering, the financing of terrorism and the creation of weapons of mass destruction. KYC verification is part of the AML complex.
AMM
AMMs on DEXs replace the order book. In fact, it's not two crypto addresses trading, but an address and a liquidity pool. The operation of the latter is determined by an algorithm.
API
An API (Application Programming Interface) allows third-party developers to access the functionalities of an exchange, such as trading and account management, via a set of programming commands. This allows the creation of custom trading bots, integration with other financial platforms, and other advanced use cases.
AR
AR (Augmented Reality) is a technology that allows you to add virtual objects to the real world using a mobile device camera or special devices like AR glasses. Remember the once-popular game Pokémon GO? That's AR.
Altcoin
Any cryptocurrency other than bitcoin.
App
a program for a smartphone or tablet that is adapted to work on a screen smaller than a computer screen. Some mobile apps require constant access to the Internet to operate.
Arbitrage trading
This type of trading includes the exploitation of price differences on crypto exchanges. Arbitrage traders buy crypto on an exchange where the price is low, and then sell it where it's higher, making a profit. This can be done manually or with the help of automated trading bots.
Asset-referenced tokens
Asset-referenced tokens are not e-money tokens but are linked to assets, rights, or their combinations, including one or more official currencies.
Audience
An official reception by a person of high rank or standing, such as an emperor, king, etc.
Avatar
an image that visually represents the participants of an online chat, social media, forums, games, etc.
B
Bar
This chart shows the opening and closing prices, as well as the maximum and minimum.
Bit Torrent
an information exchange method that allows Internet users to distribute and download content. The necessary files can be obtained from users who distribute them.
Bitcoin
Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer electronic cash system first introduced in 2008. This term refers to both the network and the cryptocurrency. The Bitcoin network was created using blockchain technology and is the first example of such implementation.
Blockchain
Blockchain technology (blockchain = 'chain of blocks') ensures the storage and transmission of information among users in the form of a chain of data blocks. Each block contains data about a certain number of transactions that took place in the network over a certain period of time.
Blockchain address
This is a unique string of characters used as a destination point for sending and receiving digital transactions on the blockchain. Blockchain addresses usually start with a certain set of characters that indicate the type of blockchain (for example, "1", "3", and "bc1" for Bitcoin, "0x" for Ethereum) and are followed by a string of alphanumeric characters. A Bitcoin address could look like this: 1BvBMSEYstWetqTFn5Au4m4GFg7xJaNVN2.
Blockchain trilemma
The compromise between security, speed, and cost is known as the blockchain trilemma. The network can have two out of three properties – security, decentralization, or scalability, but not all three at once.
Blocking a user
an action whereby one user prevents another from communicating with him/her by changing the settings. Communications from an unwanted person are hidden for the user.
Blog
a virtual journal created by an Internet user(s). Blog entries are called "posts" and contain text and images and are published one after the other in chronological order. Today, many news services have their own blogs and encourage readers to follow them. A blog can have a main topic, such as "Parenting Tips", or it can contain the author's opinions on current events.
Bluetooth
a wireless networking technology that enables data to be transferred between devices that are placed nearby but not physically connected: for example, between a smartphone and a laptop or between a smartphone and wireless headphones.
Bookmarks/Favorites
a collection of online bookmarks that help you find a page or website when you need it again. Web browsers allow you to highlight any page and use these bookmarks to go to the resource at any time. Some browsers use the term "favorites" instead of "bookmark".
Brand identity
A visual system of brand identification, the external image of the company in the eyes of customers, employees and the community. The most familiar and understandable element of identity is the logo
Branded merchandise
Any promotional item that has the corporate name or logo design on it
Browser
a program that allows users to browse the Internet and interact with information online. The most popular browsers include: Google Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Safari, Internet Explorer, and Edge.
C
CBDC
CBDC stands for Central Bank Digital Currency. In fact, it’s just another form of money.
CDD
Customer Due Diligence (CDD) is a comprehensive check, i.e., risk assessment of the client's profile. It shows whether the user was involved in financial manipulation.
CID
The particular style of content addressing used in Filecoin/IPFS is content identifiers - CIDs.
Cache
a separate memory space on your computer that stores copies of recently visited websites.
Catering
The business of providing food services at a remote site or different events
Catfishing
a type of scam where a person creates a fictitious, inauthentic account or page on social media or dating sites, usually to defraud someone else. Often, these people make up a fake past, job, or friends to create a new identity entirely. They gain trust, may even insist on a romantic relationship, and then use the other user's data, ask for financial assistance or send intimate photos.
Chronic
Protracted, long-lasting
Coin
A coin is a type of cryptocurrency that operates independently and serves as a separate currency, usually used for payment and value transfer. Such a cryptocurrency has its own blockchain, like bitcoin or ether.
Cold wallet
Cold wallets, also known as hardware wallets, are those that are not connected to the internet. Private and public keys are stored on a hardware device, which needs to be connected to a computer to access the assets. These wallets are safer but less convenient to use.
Community ecosystem
A combination of various elements that make up a community
Community mapping
Process of identifying and cataloguing who is doing what in a given geographical area
Consensus
Consensus in a blockchain is a mechanism that determines how new blocks are created and how they are added to the blockchain. It allows network participants to follow the same rules and maintain its integrity.
Consent
a legal concept, an action with clearly defined rules and consequences for breaking them, given orally or in writing. Consent can be given, for example, to receive emails and marketing materials.
Crazy
"This is crazy." It is a way to describe a certain "insane" idea or something that seems unrealistic. The slang word came to Ukrainian from English.
Crowdfunding
Crowdfunding is a method of raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, usually on the internet. This approach allows for the financing of various projects, starting from creative initiatives to cryptocurrency startups.
Crowdfunding
Funding by attracting a large number of contributions from people. Examples of platforms: Dobro.ua, Big Idea, My City
Crypto assets, other than asset-referenced tokens
Crypto assets, other than asset-referenced tokens do not fall into either the first or the second group.
Crypto exchange
A cryptocurrency exchange (crypto exchange) is a platform or service where users can buy, sell, and exchange cryptocurrency for other cryptocurrencies or for traditional currencies such as dollars or euros.
Crypto miner
Not all such programs are dangerous, but those installed without your permission use your computing resources for mining. As a result, your system is overloaded even though you are not using any resource-intensive applications. These programs are often downloaded with attachments from emails or browsers.
Crypto wallet
A crypto wallet is an interface that allows you to interact with the blockchain. It does not store the currency but private and public keys. Information about the cryptocurrency is stored on the blockchain. That is, the cryptocurrency does not leave the blockchain, but simply "moves" between addresses.
Cryptocurrency
Cryptocurrency is a virtual currency based on blockchain technology. It does not have a physical form, such as a banknote or coin (Bitcoin coins are more of a souvenir). However, it is also an asset - just in digital form. The main feature of cryptocurrency is its decentralization. This means there is no single control center. Instead, numerous computers store data that have information about crypto transactions.
Cryptocurrency chart
A price chart illustrates the price changes of an asset. A vertical axis shows price development, and a horizontal one represents time.
Cryptography
Cryptography is the science of using mathematical methods for ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of information.
Custodial wallet
A custodial wallet is a wallet that a third party can access. Typically, such wallets come as web services or apps. With such a wallet, you initiate a transaction while the third party (your wallet provider) manages everything associated with the blockchain. Keep in mind: if you grant access to your data, you must ensure this service is secure.
Cyberbullying
a use of digital technology, online content or online communication to humiliate, harass, intimidate or threaten another user.
D
DAO
DAO is a decentralized autonomous organization governed by smart contracts on the blockchain, with automated and decentralized management and decision-making processes.
DAO treasury
A DAO treasury/vault is a smart contract that stores the organization’s on-chain assets. To move the funds held in the DAO’s treasury/vault, you must meet the parameters that are coded into smart contracts.
DNS
DNS (Domain Name System) is a hierarchical distributed system for converting a host (computer or other network device) name into an IP address, that is, a numeric number for addressing computers or devices in networks, for example: 192.168.0.1.
DYOR
DYOR is an acronym for Do Your Own Research. This phrase is often used in the context of cryptocurrency investing, where a lot of noise and speculation often arises around certain projects and coins. DYOR involves researching the underlying technology and its potential applications, studying the progress of development and roadmaps, reviewing the team and advisors, as well as considering factors such as market trends and competition.
Dark social
an information exchange that cannot be accurately tracked through web analytics, i.e. through the collection and analysis of website data. It can include links to websites in emails, text messages, direct messaging services and apps offered by Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat and WhatsApp.
Darkweb
a collection of websites that is deliberately hidden from search engines. These sites require special software, configuration, encryption, or authorization to access them. The darkweb is a very small part of the Deep Web and is usually used for illegal online activities.
Data science
Data science uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms, and systems to extract knowledge and understanding from various types of data in different forms, often unstructured. Data science combines statistics, data processing, and machine learning, and includes methods and techniques related to handling large volumes of data. Thanks to these data, specialists find patterns, build predictive models, interpret results to solve specific problems.
DeFi
DeFi is an open global financial system created as an alternative to the opaque, tightly controlled traditional finance system. DeFi products are financial services for anyone with an internet connection. These include decentralized lending, borrowing, and insurance.
Deadline
Particular point in time by which an objective or task must be accomplished
Decentralization
The principle according to which information is distributed among many users, rather than stored in a single centralized system. This allows for a high level of security and immutability of information, as any change in a single block must be confirmed by the majority of the network's users.
Decentralized exchange
Decentralized exchanges (DEXs) are platforms that connect crypto buyers and sellers using smart contracts. They don’t rely on a centralized trading system. Unlike centralized exchanges (CEXs), decentralized platforms are non-custodial, meaning that the user is responsible for their private keys when making transactions. There is no central body, so DEXs use smart contracts to execute deals and record transactions on the blockchain.
Decentralized social media
Decentralized social networks do not store data on a single central server and are not governed by one person or a small group of people. They are powered by blockchain and allow users to control their data. These networks have become popular among those who want to maintain control over their data and security on the internet.
Deep Web
a part of the Internet whose content is not visible to search engines.
Deepfake
an extremely realistic, albeit fake, image or video of a real person doing or saying something that he or she did not actually do or say. Deepfakes are created using software that relies on a large number of photos or recordings of a person. Deepfakes are used to create fake news, celebrity pornography videos, and scams.
Denomination
The process of changing the nominal value of a country's monetary unit, typically carried out by replacing old banknotes and coins with new ones of a different denomination. Denomination can be implemented, for example, to combat inflation or simplify monetary calculations.
Deposit
The transfer of cryptocurrency or traditional currency to your account on the exchange. This is usually the first step towards trading cryptocurrency on the exchange.
Desk research
Collection and analysis of secondary information on a certain topic (information that has already been collected before)
Destination
An area that attracts tourists, where they travel and where they spend a certain time
Devaluation
Devaluation is a deliberate downward adjustment to the value of a country's currency relative to another currency, group of currencies, or standard, such as gold. Usually, such a move is made by the central bank or another currency market regulator.
Distribution of intimate images without consent
when intimate photos or videos are distributed on the Internet without the consent of the person depicted in them. The Criminal Code of Ukraine contains two provisions that protect a person's communication privacy: Article 163 ("Violation of the secrecy of correspondence, telephone conversations, telegraphic or other correspondence transmitted by means of communication or via a computer") and Article 182 ("Violation of the inviolability of private life").
Double-spending
Double-spending is the problem of spending the same assets twice, creating opportunities for manipulation with payments.
Download
transferring a file, video, document, or photo from a website to a computer or other digital device.
dApp
dApps, or decentralized applications, are applications operating on a decentralized network. They are designed to be resistant to censorship, fraud, and other forms of interference, as they are not controlled by any single organization. Instead, dApps rely on the collective power of the network to function.
E
E-money tokens
E-money tokens' value is tied to the value of a single official currency.
ERC-1155
It is a relatively new standard that allows the creation of tokens that can represent multiple types of assets in a single contract, as well as tokens with different characteristics. An ERC-1155 contract can contain different types of token classes, such as fungible and non-fungible (unique) tokens. Moreover, this standard allows the transfer of multiple assets at once. ERC-1155 is often used in blockchain games to create items and skins for characters.
ERC-20
This standard is used by most tokens in the Ethereum network. It defines functions and events such as the total number of tokens in circulation, token transfers, balance checks, and transaction approval.
ERC-721
This is a standard for creating non-fungible tokens (NFTs) in the Ethereum blockchain. NFTs are unique digital assets that cannot be reproduced or replaced, unlike fungible tokens such as ERC-20. ERC-721 tokens are often used to represent digital collectible items, such as CryptoKitties, or other unique digital assets: art pieces or real estate objects.
EVM
The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is an environment for smart contracts in Ethereum. It allows arbitrary computations to be executed on the network so that developers can create blockchain-based decentralized apps. The EVM is responsible for managing the state of all smart contracts in the network, as well as for compliance with Ethereum rules and norms.
End user
a person who actually uses the software or online service.
Escrow
In this case, a third party holds the buyer's payment in a deposit account until the seller transfers the assets to the buyer. This ensures that the buyer's funds will be safe, and the seller will be motivated to complete their part of the deal.
Ether
Ether (ETH) is a native cryptocurrency used to facilitate transactions and execute smart contracts within the Ethereum network.
Ethereum
Ethereum is a decentralized blockchain network with its own native token – ether (ETH). Ethereum allows users to conduct transactions, earn interest on their assets, create, and store tokens of various formats. It also enables the implementation of various program logic (smart contracts). Developers can create and deploy their own decentralized applications (dApps) and decentralized autonomous organizations (DAO) on top of Ethereum.
Explorer
An explorer is a web tool that allows users to view details about transactions and blocks in the blockchain. These details can include the transaction confirmation number (also called the transaction hash), the block number, the transaction amount, the addresses involved in the transaction, and more.
F
FATF
The Financial Action Task Force (FATF, Group for the development of financial measures to combat money laundering and terrorist financing) is an international regulator that creates recommendations to counteract money laundering and terrorist financing.
FTP
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a network protocol designed for transferring files between a client and a server in a computer network.
Face
A slang word that literally means "face" in English
Fiat currency
Fiat is a type of money or currency that is not backed by a physical commodity, such as gold or silver. Instead, it is issued by the government and used as a legal means of payment for goods and services.
Field research
Collecting primary data through surveys, interviews, etc. (information collected for the first time to solve a clearly defined problem)
Filecoin
Filecoin is a protocol and a distributed blockchain-based data storage network that allows storing, sharing, and selling files stored on multiple nodes and providing access to them. Filecoin users pay miners for data storage with Filecoin’s cryptocurrency (FIL).
Flash loan
A flash loan is an instant loan. Decentralized platforms offer this opportunity to traders who don't have funds without collateral and creditworthiness checks. The loan is given for a very short period of time and must be fully repaid by the end of this period. Flash loans are executed automatically via a smart contract without human intervention or approval.
Focus group
A qualitative research method, group interview, organized in the form of a conversation between several respondents
Fork
A fork is the division of the chain of blocks into two new, independent of each other, chains. The asset created in such a way is also called a fork.
Forward swaps
A forward swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange one asset for another at a predetermined price in the future. Forward swaps are not traded on exchanges and are typically used for hedging, i.e., reducing risks by taking a counter-position on the market.
Fundamental analysis
Fundamental analysis is an evaluation strategy used to determine the fair value of an asset in the market. Usually, this involves studying business methods, technical documents, roadmaps, competition, marketing strategy, network activity, and other indicators.
Futures trading
Futures trading is a contract for the purchase/sale of an asset in the future at a pre-defined price. Thus, market fluctuations will not affect the value of the cryptocurrency in the contract. However, they can significantly impact the trader's profits or losses. You can also trade futures using leverage.
G
GDPR
The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a document that governs how the personal data of individuals in the EU and the European Economic Area may be processed and transferred. It ensures that a person can demand deleting information about themselves from the internet.
GPS
(Global Positioning System) a worldwide navigation system that uses satellites to accurately determine location. GPS is necessary for the operation of location-based services."
GameFi
GameFi (game + finance) is a unique integration of games and finance that allows users to monetize their gaming experience. Such projects are built on the blockchain and usually include elements of metaverses, NFTs, and DeFi to make the players’ experience more exciting.
Gaming reputation
Gaming reputation is a player’s rating in the gaming world. Completing tasks, helping other gamers, and even behavior in games affect this indicator. For example, players with a higher rating may have access to special tasks or assets.
Gantt chart
A bar chart that illustrates a project schedule and is an important tool for planning and project management
Gas
Gas is a unit for measuring the amount of computational effort required to perform certain operations on the Ethereum network. Gas fees are paid in the network's currency, ether (ETH). Gas prices are listed in Gwei, which in itself is a unit of ETH: each Gwei equals 0.000000001 ETH.
Grant
Funds or other means provided for the project implementation and the achievement of goals on a gratuitous and non-refundable basis
Grooming
establishing friendly and trusting relationships with minors via the Internet by adults to engage in intimate relations with them, blackmail and intimidation.
Guarantor
A guarantor is a trusted party that guarantees that a transaction will be executed according to the specified terms. This can provide additional protection for both parties, for example, if one of them has a low reputation or limited transaction history. However, guarantors most often take a commission from both parties of each deal.
H
HTTP
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is a data transfer protocol used on the Internet for transmitting web pages from the server to the user's computer. It is used for facilitating communication between browsers and servers. HTTPS is a secure version of HTTP, which uses encryption to protect data from interception.
HTTPS
HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure) is a hypertext transfer protocol that uses cryptographic encryption to ensure the security of data transmitted between the browser and the website.
Hack
To "hack" a computer or smartphone to obtain private information
Happy slapping
when someone films scenes of violence (fights, bullying) and distributes this content on the Internet.
Hard cap
A hard cap is the maximum necessary amount to realize the idea.
Hard fork
A hard fork is a software update that is not compatible with previous versions. This usually happens when nodes introduce changes that contradict the existing rules old nodes rely on. The new nodes can only interact with nodes that use the new version. As a result, the blockchain splits into two separate networks: one with the old rules and the other with the new ones.
Hash
To put it simply, a block hash is its unique identifier.
Hash function
Hash function is a math function that takes input data of any size and outputs a hash value of a fixed size (64 characters, for example).
Hot wallet
Hot wallets are services or apps that store data regarding your access to the blockchain on the internet. Assets associated with such a wallet are always available to the user online. The advantage of hot wallets is quick access and flexibility. But anything connected to the internet is at risk of being hacked. Therefore, usually, crypto enthusiasts don’t hold all their assets in hot wallets.
Hyperlink
any text or graphic on a website that, when clicked, takes you to another resource or page on the Internet. Hyperlinks often look like text in a different color or underlined.
I
ICO
ICO (Initial coin offering) involves selling tokens (coins) to investors in exchange for cryptocurrencies, usually ether or bitcoin.
IDO
IDO (Initial DEX offering) is used to find investment via decentralized exchanges.
IEO
IEO (Initial exchange offering) helps to raise funding using centralized exchanges.
IMEI (International mobile equipment identifier)
a 15-digit number that identifies a wireless device, such as a smartphone. The IMEI number is usually located on a sticker inside the device or is displayed on the screen when you enter the combination *#06#. To prevent someone from using your device if it is lost or stolen, you can ask your service provider to block your IMEI.
IPFS
IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) is a protocol and distributed data storage system that enables the storage of and access to files in a decentralized environment. IPFS ensures data backup and its fast distribution throughout the network using P2P (peer-to-peer) technology. Moreover, this protocol allows for accessing data even when the original source is unavailable because the files are stored on multiple network nodes.
IPLD
IPLD (InterPlanetary Linked Data) is a protocol that unifies data distributed across various computers and throughout the network into a single database. At the core of the protocol are two concepts: network addressing and content addressing. The former allows for identifying a specific node in the network, while the latter identifies specific data by their content, not their address.
Implementation
Execution of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model
Indicator
A project performance indicator that will demonstrate achievement of your goal
Info stealer
Such programs steal personal data for future use. A clipper (type of stealer) is extremely popular in the crypto industry. The program activates a code that replaces the recipient’s wallet address with the hacker's address.
Information & communication technology (ICT)
a term used to describe all hardware and software that allows processing, storing and transmitting data in digital format.
Insight
A clear, deep, and sometimes sudden understanding of a complicated problem or situation
Instant messaging
sending messages from one computer or device to another using small pop-up windows. Instant messaging services work like email for communication between two or more people.
International technical assistance (ITA)
Financial resources and services provided by donors under international agreements of Ukraine on a gratuitous and non-refundable basis to support Ukraine
Internet
a global computer network that allows the exchange of information around the world.
Internet provider
a company that provides Internet access to private and business users for a fee.
J
JS sniffer
These are malicious scripts, usually installed on pages with online payment forms. The problem is that it’s nearly impossible to protect yourself from them, as the code is embedded on the website.
Japanese candlesticks
This is the most informative type of chart: it shows how the price of an asset developed over a certain period. The body of the candle represents the opening and closing prices, and the shadows stand for the minimum and maximum prices.
Juliet
A special chair developed in France, thanks to which people with disabilities reach mountain peaks
K
KYC
The "Know your customer" (KYC) procedure is a standard designed to protect financial institutions from fraud, corruption, money laundering and terrorist financing. This is a practice used by companies to verify the identity of their customers in accordance with legal requirements and applicable laws and regulations.
Keylogger
Such programs or devices record keystrokes and clicks, capturing information from your screen, webcam, etc.
Keylogger
a hardware device installed on a keyboard or spyware that records every keystroke (or sequence of keystrokes) on a keyboard. A keylogger records everything a user enters, including emails, usernames, passwords, credit card and/or bank account numbers, in order to steal information.
Keywords
words that describe the main content of a web page.
L
L1
This layer is the basic level of the blockchain, which usually includes the main protocol, consensus mechanism, and data storage. L1 is responsible for maintaining the integrity and security of the blockchain. This is the foundation upon which all other layers are built. Examples include Bitcoin, Ethereum, Solana, Near, Polkadot, Cardano, and others.
L2
Layer 2 uses the security of level 1 as a base on which another network is built. L2 “extracts” computing power from L1 to increase speed and reduce transaction costs. L2 executes transactions outside of L1, and then data is recorded on L1 where consensus is achieved. Examples are Arbitrum, Polygon, Optimism, Skale, and others.
Launchpad
Launchpads are platforms that help new crypto projects launch Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) or Initial Exchange Offerings (IEOs) to raise funds from investors. Launchpads provide a variety of services: marketing, financial verification, token issuance, and their listing on exchanges. They may also offer additional services, such as access to an investor network and legal support.
Launchpool
Launchpools are another type of farming. In this case, one set of tokens is locked, and the reward is received in tokens that are being launched on the platform.
Lending
Lending is a popular way to earn money on cryptocurrency. You provide your assets as a loan, and then you get them back along with interest. Typically, intermediaries are lending platforms or exchanges. Loan terms, such as interest rate, repayment schedule, and collateral requirements, are agreed upon between the borrower and the lender.
Leverage
Leverage is the ratio of the loan amount to the margin – personal funds that a trader invests. It can be expressed in percentages or in numerical value (1:6 or x6).
Libel
spreading humiliating, offensive and false information about someone. Libel can be in the form of text messages, photos, memes and is an offense under Ukrainian law.
Lifehack
A small trick or useful tip that simplifies the process or saves time to achieve a goal
Limit order
A limit order allows traders to set a price limit only at a specified or more favorable price but does not guarantee its execution.
Line chart
These charts are the simplest visualization. Such a chart only shows the closing prices of deals over a certain period. It is suitable for beginners, but compared to others, it provides little data.
Liquidation
Liquidation means closing a position in the market. An asset is sold to pay off the debt. A trader's position is closed if its value falls below a certain level. The minimum amount that must always remain in the trader's account until the position is closed is called the maintenance margin.
Liquidity
Liquidity is an indicator that determines how easily and quickly you can buy, sell, or exchange an asset. High liquidity means that there are enough buyers and sellers in the market, and therefore transactions with cryptocurrency can be easily carried out.
Liquidity pool
A liquidity pool is, in fact, a large fund. Users provide their assets, which are locked in a smart contract and used for DeFi operations such as lending, trading, etc. To enter a pool, you need to provide not one type of cryptocurrency, but an equivalent value of two. For example, for the ETH/DOGE trading pair, you need to deposit 1ETH + approximately 18.5 DOGE.
Local government
Elected and other bodies of territorial communities, which have the authority to resolve issues of local importance
Long
A long position means that a trader has purchased an asset and hopes that the price will increase, and it can be sold for a profit. Therefore, to take a long position = buy and hold crypto expecting that its price will increase.
M
MVP
MVP (Minimum Viable Product) is a minimally functional product or prototype demonstrates the feasibility of the project and attracts investment. Highlight potential. Investors are interested in projects that have large market demand and high growth potential.
Malware
software that tricks you into installing an application that allows scammers to gain access to personal data. Malware can also track your activities, collect information about them, and share them with third parties.
Margin call
A margin call is a request from a broker or exchange to add more funds to a trader’s account to meet minimum margin requirements. This happens when the value of a trader's position falls below the required minimum level set by the broker or exchange.
Margin trading
This tool allows trading using borrowed funds from an exchange or broker. The larger the deal, the larger the potential profit. The deal amount depends on how much personal funds (the margin) the trader has on their balance.
Market order
A market order is a type of order to buy or sell an asset at the current market price.
Matrix of stakeholders
A tool for displaying the level of influence, support and interest of stakeholders in the project, which facilitates the preparation of interaction strategy with interested parties
Maximum (max) supply
The maximum supply is the total amount of tokens that can ever be issued. This number is coded in the protocol, and it is impossible to issue more tokens. For example, for bitcoins, this is 21 million, while ether does not have a maximum supply.
Means of accommodation
A general term used in Ukrainian legislation to cover any facilities that provide people with an occasional or regular place to spend the night (usually indoors)
Mempool
Mempool (abbreviation of memory and pool) is something akin to a "purgatory of transactions" waiting for confirmation. This is where transactions that have not yet been added to a block are stored.
Mesh network
A mesh network is a multi-hop network. Its devices have router functions and can use different paths for information transmission.
Metadata
Metadata refers to data about other data. In the context of NFTs, it refers to the data that contains information about the characteristics and properties of the token. Typically, it includes the name, description, transaction history, specifications, links to images, audio, video, and other details that help identify and describe the NFT.
Metaverse
A metaverse is a space where users can interact with each other and with objects in a virtual environment. Metaverses are created for various purposes, for example, for games, learning, communication, and as social networks. Users are represented by virtual characters (avatars) who build virtual structures, establish virtual organizations, form groups, and interact with each other.
MiCA
MiCA stands for Market in Crypto-Assets, which is a regulatory framework set by the European Union to define rules for cryptocurrencies.
Miner
Miner is an equipment for mining cryptocurrencies based on the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus algorithm. Also, people who mine cryptocurrency are called miners.
Mining
Mining is the process when new blocks are generated in a blockchain network. Mining is the primary mechanism of the proof-of-work consensus, which is used in the Bitcoin blockchain network, among others.
Mining farm
A mining farm is a system that combines a certain number of computers or servers. Different equipment is used at different times and for different cryptocurrencies.
Mining pool
A mining pool is a group of miners who mine cryptocurrency together.
Modem/router
an electronic device that connects a computer to the Internet.
Moderator
a user who has more rights than ordinary users in some social media, online chat rooms, or forums to check that users are following the rules of conduct. Moderators can often block individual comments as well as users whose posts do not meet the standards of behavior.
Move-to-Earn
Move-to-Earn is another GameFi model. Such games reward users for physical activity. For example, STEPN accrues tokens to users for walks and runs in NFT sneakers.
Multi-sig
Multi-sig (multi-signature) is a blockchain security feature that requires several parties to sign a transaction before it can be executed. This adds another level of security: to spend any funds, several approvals are needed.
Multichain wallet
Multichain wallets allow you to store and use assets that operate on different blockchains in a single interface. They can exist as mobile applications, desktop apps, or browser extensions. With such a wallet, you do not need to install and set up an app for each specific currency.
N
NFT
NFT (non-fungible token) is a unique digital asset that represents ownership rights or proof of authenticity of a certain item or content, such as art, music, video, text, a game character, etc.
NFT marketplaces
NFT marketplaces are online platforms where you can buy/sell non-fungible tokens. Like exchanges, these trading platforms can be centralized or decentralized. They can be either universal or niche, trading only art pieces, game items, or collectible cards.
Network
a group of computers that can interact with each other. A network can be small (consisting of two computers) or large (consisting of billions of devices).
Network worm
a program that can copy and spread itself without human intervention. Network worms usually are found in files that are attached to emails or instant messages. They can generally be avoided by not opening suspicious emails with attachments or links, keeping your computer system up to date, and using the latest anti-virus software.
Node
A network node is the foundation of every blockchain. Nodes continuously "communicate" with each other based on a consensus algorithm. This allows for the creation of a decentralized network in which there are no dedicated servers and no central controlling authority.
Non-custodial wallet
With a non-custodial (aka self-custodial) wallet, you are the only one who can access the keys and funds. This option is considered more secure. However, it might be less convenient for newbies, as it requires at least minimal understanding of how the blockchain works, how to verify transactions, secure your assets, etc.
Nonce
Nonce is an abbreviation for 'number used once.' It is a random or pseudorandom number that is added to complicate the process of hash generation.
O
Online alienation
removal from social media groups and classmates' chats by people who deliberately ignore messages from a particular person. It is also a manifestation of cyberbullying.
Online forums
removal from social media groups and classmates' chats by people who deliberately ignore messages from a particular person. It is also a manifestation of cyberbullying.
Online safety policy
a document created by an educational institution (e.g., a school) that describes the standards of behavior for the use of computers, mobile and other technologies.
Online scam
a type of fraud that involves taking possession of someone else's property or acquiring rights to property by deception or abuse of trust on the Internet. Online scammers mostly mislead people and extort money or access to personal data from users.
Open source software
Open source software is a decentralized development model that allows anyone to modify and share the technology, as its structure is openly accessible. Anyone can open the repository and read how the execution of transactions, data transfer, and storage are coded. For example, the Bitcoin repository can be viewed on GitHub.
Option
An option is a type of contract that gives a trader the right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell a certain amount of cryptocurrency at a specified price in the future.
Order
An order is a request to buy/sell cryptocurrency. It contains a specific price, quantity, and type of asset.
Order book
An order book is a real-time record of all buy and sell orders for a particular asset. It shows the current bids (buy orders) and asks (sell orders) for each asset available on the exchange.
Outcome
Changes that will occur when the project outputs appear
Output
A direct result of the implementation of each project action/activity
Over-the-counter market
The over-the-counter (OTC) market in the crypto industry is a decentralized and unregulated platform for trading digital assets directly between buyers and sellers. This market allows for large-scale operations with individual terms that are not available on regular exchanges. During OTC cryptocurrency trading, buyers and sellers negotiate the price themselves and conduct operations directly with each other.
P
P2P
P2P (peer-to-peer) is a type of system architecture based on a network of equal nodes. These networks rely on the principle of equality of participants: their elements can communicate with each other. In traditional architecture, only a separate category of participants, called servers, can provide certain services to others.
PFP
Owners of NFTs representing PFPs (picture for proof) or avatars use them in their social media profiles. After the NFT boom in 2021, several celebrities added such avatars to their profiles.
PNL
PNL (profit and loss) is the difference between the price at which the asset was bought and the selling price. If the selling price is higher than the buying price, then the PNL will be positive (profit). If the selling price is lower than the buying price, it will be negative (loss).
Participatory budgeting
A form of citizen participation in which citizens are involved in the process of deciding how public money is spent
Pass rate
The pass rate is the percentage of votes cast that need to be in favor for the proposal to be accepted.
Pay-to-Play
Pay-to-Play (P2P) is a model that requires users to pay to access the content or features of a game, service, or product.
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard
The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a standard that includes requirements for security management, rules, procedures, network architecture, software development, and other critically important measures for the protection of banking data.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networking
programs that run on a personal computer or other digital device and transfer files, music, or videos to other users on the Internet. Peer-to-peer networks connect individual computers to share files.
Peer-to-peer trading
Peer-to-peer (P2P) trading implies a direct connection between two parties without a central authority. A platform or service is used to connect buyers and sellers. P2P trading is convenient because it offers more opportunities to choose the price. However, there are also many risks as there is no intermediary to ensure the security of transactions and resolve disputes.
Perpetual futures contracts
These contracts have no expiration date. This is why they are perpetual: a trader can hold a position as long as needed. In addition, the price of such contracts roughly equals the spot price. This is ensured by the funding mechanism. According to it, traders with a long position make payments to traders with a short position when the funding rate is positive, and vice versa.
Perpetual swap
A perpetual swap is similar to a futures contract, as it allows traders to speculate on the price fluctuations of cryptocurrencies. Suppose you bought 3 BTC/USD perpetual swaps, depositing 60,000 dollars. Therefore, each swap costs you 20,000 dollars. If Bitcoin rises to 30,000 after a while, you will make a profit of 10,000 on each swap. Profit = 3 swaps X (current BTC price - entry price).
Philanthropist
A benefactor
Phishing
Phishing is a cyber attack that is typically used to steal personal information, such as passwords or seed phrases.
Phishing
Phishing is an attack in which scammers send spam messages that look like they're from a source you trust, like tech support. The message contains a link to a fake site that collects user data. It might be an invitation to check your account, which someone “has accessed,” participate in a survey for a reward, receive a prize, etc.
Play-to-Earn
In games built on the Play-to-Earn model (P2E), players can earn in-game currency or other rewards for completing tasks, going through quests, reaching certain stages of the game, etc. These rewards can be used to gain access to new game features, move to another level, or increase your rating. Users can also convert the tokens into fiat and spend them on their needs.
Plugin
a software piece that adds functionality to a larger program, such as an audio plugin that allows a web browser to play music.
PoRep
Proof-of-Replication (PoRep) is a new kind of Proof-of-Storage, that can be used to prove that some data D has been replicated to its own uniquely dedicated physical storage. Enforcing unique physical copies enables a verifier to check that a prover is not deduplicating multiple copies of D into the same storage space.
PoSt
Proof of Spacetime (PoST) is a type of consensus algorithm used in distributed ledger technology based on the concept of timestamping blocks of data. The concept of PoST is that new blocks of data are only accepted if they are timestamped with the current “time”.
Podcast
an audio or video file available for downloading and/or listening online.
Portable hard drive
an external storage device that connects to a port (connection point) on a computer, often via USB, as it is the most common type of port used in modern computers. Portable hard drives can store a large amount of data, so users can back up or store important information and reduce the space used up on the internal hard drive.
Post-traumatic stress disorder
A chronic mental disorder that can develop after a traumatic event
Press release
An official statement delivered to members of the news media for the purpose of providing information, creating an official statement or making an announcement directed for public release
Primary sale
Primary sale: NFT is offered for sale for the first time, and this is usually done at the market price set by the author.
Privacy policy
defines the terms of an organization, resource or website regarding the processing of users' personal information. A privacy policy can often be found as a text link in the footer section of a web page.
Private key
A private key is a unique set of characters for generating and signing electronic transactions. Using a private key allows one to confirm that the transaction was created by the owner of this key.
Prohibited content
content that contains depictions of child sexual abuse; promotion or instruction of pedophile activity; content of a sexual nature; free, detailed and shocking depictions of real violence; content that supports a terrorist act; content that provides detailed instructions for or facilitates a crime or violence."
Project
A complex of organized tasks and activities limited in time and budget, directed to the creation of a unique output of a certain quality
Proof-of-Stake
Proof-of-Stake (PoS) is a consensus mechanism in which participants get the right to generate new blocks based on the amount of cryptocurrency in staking, i.e., the funds that are stored to support the security and activity of the network.
Proof-of-Work
Proof-of-Work (PoW) is a consensus mechanism in which network nodes solve a complex math problem to generate new blocks. This consensus mechanism powers Bitcoin.
Public key
A public key is used for receiving a transaction.
Q
Quorum
Minimum participation, or quorum, is the minimum level of participation required for a vote to be valid. For example, in the case of wallet-based voting, imagine the quorum required 5% of the total voting power to participate. Say there’s a vote where 100% of people who participated voted “yes,” but only 2% of all wallets in the DAO voted. In this case, the vote would not be valid.
R
Ransomware virus
a type of malicious software that blocks or restricts access to your computer or files and demands payment of a ransom to the scammer in exchange for unlocking.
Repository
A repository is a publicly available resource on the network where any data, most often program code, is stored and maintained. Data in a repository is stored in the form of files, available for further distribution across the network.
Resistance line
Resistance line is the maximum price that an asset can reach.
Revenge porn
spreading or threatening to spread intimate images of a person with the aim of causing moral harm and/or revenge. It most often occurs between former partners.
Risk/reward ratio
The risk/reward ratio helps to determine whether it's worth investing in an asset, as well as when and how much exactly. The risk (i.e., how much you can potentially lose) is often divided by the possible profit. The most popular ratio is 1:3. This means that for every 1, say, bitcoin risk, you will receive 3 bitcoins profit. Also, ratios of 1:7, 1:10, and even 1:15 are used.
Rollup
Rollup is a mechanism that allows executing transactions on top of a separate blockchain, while maintaining the availability and integrity guaranteed by Ethereum itself.
Round-table discussion
A form of public discussion or coverage of some issues, when the participants speak in a certain order
Royalties
Royalties in the context of NFTs refer to a percentage of the sale price that is paid to the author each time the token is resold. It is a way for creators to continue to profit from their work even after the initial sale. For example, if an NFT is sold for $100 with a 5% royalty, the creator of this token will receive $5 each time the NFT is resold in the future.
S
SBT
Soulbound tokens (SBT) are designed to affirm reputation in a decentralized environment. Think of it as a blockchain-based resume that is verified by other network participants. By design, such tokens belong to a specific individual and cannot be sold or transferred.
SSL encryption
SSL encryption (Secure Sockets Layer) is an encryption technology that provides a secure connection between a user's browser and a web server. This means that all data transmitted between the browser and the server is protected and cannot be read by third parties. When a website uses SSL, its URL starts with "https" instead of "http".
STO
STO (Security token offering) implies that a company releases so-called security tokens for sale. Owning such a token gives the right to own a part of the company or product. By its idea, it's very similar to the essence of securities, so this type of token often falls under the regulatory policy.
Safety by design
a company's or institution's effort to focus on the safety and rights of users in the design, development, and implementation of online products and services. The initiatives aim to promote higher standards of user safety.
Scalability
This is the ability of a system/network/project to increase its productivity and throughput with the growth of the number of users, transactions, and other actions taking place in the system. That is, the larger the volume of data that needs to be processed, the more efficiently the system should work.
Scam
A scam refers to a fraudulent or deceptive scheme. This can involve promises of unrealistic profits or instant riches, false information about the company or investment opportunities, or pressure on a person to invest quickly without researching the project and potential risks.
Search engine
a tool allowing to find information on the Internet. Google is currently the most popular search engine; there are also other search engines such as Bing, Yahoo, etc.
Secondary sale
Secondary sale is a sale from one buyer to another after the primary sale. The price of NFTs often increases. However, this is influenced by supply and demand, the popularity of NFTs, and other market conditions. For example, the first tweet by Twitter founder Jack Dorsey sold for $3 million, but a year later, its price fell by 99%.
Seed phrase
A seed phrase (also a secret phrase, recovery phrase, or mnemonic) is used when creating a crypto wallet and is the key (or pin code) to it. It allows you to generate a certain number of private keys in a certain blockchain network. Usually, a seed phrase contains 12, 18, or 24 words.
Shindig
A certain event or entertainment. This is a slang word that can be used to describe both a party and a sporting event
Short
A short position means that a trader sells an asset that he does not own to buy it back later at a lower price. That is, to take a short position = borrow crypt expecting that its price will decrease. If your expectations are met, you can buy back an asset at a lower price, return it to the creditor, and keep the difference as a profit.
Sidechain
Sidechains are separate blockchain networks connected to the main blockchain. This allows for the transfer of assets between the main chain and the sidechain, increasing the network’s throughput.
Slippage
Slippage is the difference between the requested deal price and the final execution price.
Smart Lock
Smart Lock is a security feature in smartphone OS that allows automatic unlocking the screen under certain circumstances. For example, you can set certain devices (your Bluetooth headsets or smart watch) as "trusted", and your phone will automatically unlock when it is near these devices.
Smart adjustment
A design method that is used on objects where it is impossible to fully apply the principles of universal design. Basically, this tool is used in the restoration and reconstruction of valuable architectural monuments, where the preservation of the integrity of the object of protection is regulated by law
Smart contract
Smart contracts are self-executing contracts where the code defines the terms of the agreement. They are stored and replicated in the blockchain network to provide a transparent and interference-protected method of executing and fulfilling agreements.
Social engineering
The term refers to malicious activities aimed at manipulating people to prompt them to take certain actions, such as sharing confidential or personal information that can later be used against them or their company.
Social entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurial activity designed to solve social problems and meet the needs of society
Soft cap
A soft cap is the minimum amount of investment that needs to be raised to implement the minimal version of the idea.
Soft fork
A soft fork is a backward-compatible update, meaning updated nodes can interact with the old ones. A soft fork usually happens when new rules are added that don't contradict the old ones. That is, if you don't follow the new rules, you won't be ""kicked out"" of the network, but some information provided by the new rules won't be available to you.
Software
a set of all programs on a personal computer. This includes libraries, online documents, digital media, etc.
Specialized design
A design method that takes into account the needs of a separate group of people (depending on age, gender or condition). It requires the involvement of a wide range of experts in the design for the best design solution
Spot trading
Spot trading is the purchase and sale of various digital assets using the trader's own funds. Such traders buy assets anticipating their price to increase. The current market value of assets is called the spot price. Spot trading is the main form of trading on exchanges: it is the simplest and most accessible for most users.
Stablecoin
Stablecoin is a cryptocurrency whose value is pegged to the value of another currency, commodity, or financial instrument. Stablecoins aim to provide an alternative to the high volatility of the most popular cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoin.
Stakeholders
Individuals and organizations actively participating in the project or those whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by the implementation of the project or its successful completion
Staking
Staking is “locking” one's assets in a smart contract for a reward. Staking resembles the proof-of-stake consensus mechanism, when validators lock their tokens in the network and are rewarded for verifying transactions.
Startup
This term refers to any new company that aspires to rapid development and success in a new business segment or an existing market. These companies often start with an idea that has the potential to change or improve some aspect of people's lives or businesses. These ideas can apply to various sectors, ranging from finance to social projects. Startups are usually created with a fairly limited budget but possess great potential for growth and profitability.
Stop order
An agreement on the sale of a digital asset when the price reaches a certain level, used to limit losses.
Stop-limit order
A stop-limit order has a stop price. Upon reaching the set stop price for the trading pair, the order is activated and executed as a regular limit order.
Stop-market order
A stop-market order is an order that activates a market order after reaching the stop price.
Support line
Support line is an imaginary boundary below which the asset will not fall.
Swap
A swap is a direct exchange of one type of cryptocurrency for another, without the need to convert to traditional currency. Swaps are often used on decentralized exchanges (DeFi), where users can directly exchange one cryptocurrency for another.
Swap farming
Swap farming involves exchanging one token for another to receive a reward. That is, users do not provide liquidity but swap assets. Usually, one of them, such as a stablecoin, is in high demand.
T
TLV
TVL (Total Value Locked) measures the amount of cryptocurrency locked in a smart contract of a certain project. This could be cryptocurrency locked on a platform to secure loans, provide liquidity in blockchain exchanges, or deposits in other DeFi projects.
Target audience
The audience the project activities are targeting at and those who could best make use of the project result
Technical analysis
This approach involves analyzing historical price and volume data to identify trends and predict future price movements. In technical analysis, charts are key tools for tracking price changes. The most popular ones are Japanese candlestick, line, and bar charts. Analysts use a combination of these tools to make decisions based on the data.
Thread
a series of posts in a discussion on a single topic. It consists of the original post and subsequent replies/comments to it. In a thread, people can reply to the original post as well as to each other. Threads are quite common on Twitter.
Ticker
Ticker is the short name of the currency. For example, bitcoin's ticker is BTC.
Timeline
A display of a list of activities in chronological order
To craft
To create, construct
Token
A token is an asset or utility built on an already existing blockchain infrastructure, such as Ethereum. That is, a token doesn’t have its "own" blockchain. Tokens are created using smart contracts and are used for access to certain programs and services provided by the network. They can represent a stake in a company, a voting right in the network, etc. Examples of tokens include Uniswap (UNI), Chainlink (LINK), and Sandbox (SAND).
Token standard
A token standard is a set of rules and protocols. It determines how tokens can be created, transferred, and used in the network. The standard works like a common language in the blockchain: tokens created under one standard can integrate with all blockchain programs that "speak" this language.
Tokenomic
The term "tokenomics" (tokenomics — token + economics) refers to the characteristics of supply and demand for a crypto project. It takes into account issuance, attributes, distribution, supply, demand, market capitalization, and other criteria of the token.
Trading pair
Trading pairs are various combinations of digital assets that can be traded on a crypto exchange. For example, on a CEX, you might have the option to trade Bitcoin (BTC) for Ether (ETH), or Litecoin (LTC) for Bitcoin Cash (BCH).
Trading program
Trading programs, like trading bots, can automatically execute trades on crypto exchanges according to certain criteria. They can be used for various purposes, like arbitrage.
Trading volume
Trading volume is the number of assets sold over a specific period of time.
Transaction
An operation carried out over data in a blockchain. It can be used to transfer crypto, to record data in the blockchain, or to execute a script based on a smart contract. Each transaction contains information about how much of crypto is being transferred, from whom, and to whom. There is also metadata, such as the time of operation and signatures of the parties, confirming its authenticity. After confirmation, the transaction becomes part of a block, which is added to the blockchain.
Travel Rule
A requirement to get necessary and accurate information about the sender, as well as the beneficiary, and share it with counterparties during or before the transaction. This rule applies not only to cryptocurrencies but also to fiat. It allows more effective tracking of money flows and prevents using financial instruments for criminal purposes.
Trend line
Trend line is used to determine the direction and magnitude of the trend for a specific asset.
Two-factor authentication
Two-factor authentication (2FA) is an identity verification to access an account, which provides an additional level of account protection. When using 2FA, in addition to the password, you need to enter an additional code from an SMS or application, turn on voice recognition, leave a fingerprint, etc.
U
URL
a uniform resource locator, which is the digital address of a file or web page.
USB
(Universal Serial Bus) a technology allowing an external electronic device to be connected to a computer. USB is mostly used on personal computers, but it can also be found on devices such as smartphones, computer mice, keyboards, scanners, printers, and digital cameras."
UTXO
The UTXO model (Unspent Transaction Output) is a model where new addresses are generated for each transaction, making tracking the origin of these transactions a complex task. Bitcoin uses such a model.
Universal design
Philosophy of designing space, objects or services with regard to their ease of use for the widest possible range of users, designed to make them as usable as possible for the widest possible range of people
User
a person who uses a program on a digital device with or without an Internet connection.
Username
a name that a person chooses on the Internet. When you sign up for a game site or chat room, you need to create a unique identifier (a username) to identify yourself in that online environment. Choosing a username, such as maz123, instead of your full name will help protect your privacy.
Utility tokens
Utility tokens grant access to goods or services.
V
VC
Verifiable credentials (VC) represent an open standard for digital data that allows user information verified or confirmed by a trusted entity, such as government bodies, financial institutions, or identity verification services, to be shared without disclosing any other information about themselves to the recipient.
VPN
(Virtual Private Network) a service that allows you to have a private connection while using a public network. A VPN is often used to hide your location by providing a private path between your computer and the websites you visit on the Internet. This means that your location will not be visible when you browse the Internet."
VPN 1
VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a technology that creates a secure and encrypted connection over a public network, usually the internet. VPN allows users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computers were directly connected to a private network.
VR
VR (Virtual Reality) allows users to experience the virtual environment as if it was real, often with the help of a headset.
Victim blaming
when the crime victim is held responsible for the harm they have suffered. For example, someone who has been abused through images (a victim) may have shared their intimate photos with another person, and the victim may be blamed for this.
Virtual assets
Most jurisdictions consider virtual assets as commodities, while a smaller portion sees them as money or securities. One common approach is to divide all virtual assets into groups: cryptocurrencies, which enable the storage and transfer of value; security tokens similar to financial instruments; utility tokens, which grant access to services or goods.
Virus
a type of malicious software that blocks or restricts access to your computer or files and demands payment of a ransom to the scammer in exchange for unlocking.
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
a technology that allows voice to be transmitted using the same protocols or sets of rules that the Internet utilizes. For example, Skype, WhatsApp, and Facebook Messenger use VoIP technology for user phone calls.
W
WPA2
WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) is a security standard for wireless networks, introduced in 2004 as an improvement to the previous standard, WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access). WPA2 uses a more advanced encryption algorithm - AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), which provides a higher level of security than the previous WPA standard.
Web 1
This is the so-called first generation of the World Wide Web, which was primarily a means of access to information and data exchange. It was a relatively simple version of the internet: users could view static web pages but could not interact with the content or contribute to it.
Web 2
This version refers to the second generation of the World Wide Web. New features allowed users to interact with the content of web pages and make contributions to it. It included the ability to comment, create and share user-generated content, as well as use social networks.
Web 3
“The Semantic Web” is the next generation of the internet. This version focuses on making it easier for machines to understand and interpret data and information on the network. This will allow the creation of new programs and services that can use this data to provide users with a more personalized experience.
Webcam
a camera attached to a computer that can broadcast photos and videos in real time over the Internet.
Webpage
a document on a website that can be viewed using a web browser. A webpage has an individual web address, or URL, such as www.thedigital.gov.ua or www.google.com.
Website or site
a place on the Internet where you can find information, pay bills, play games, share photos and stories with others, and so on. Companies, governments, and individuals can have a website. Each website consists of web pages that can contain text, images, video, and sound.
Whaling
Whaling is a type of attack that typically targets high-ranking officials or managers to gain access to important information. The emails can contain details that are similar to those used by real companies.
Whiner
A person who is always dissatisfied with something, complaining, lamenting, crying. A whiner because he/she whines.
White paper
A white paper is a document that describes the main features and technical specifications of a product or project.
Wi-Fi
a network technology that uses radio waves to provide high-speed Internet and network connections without a physical wired connection between the sender and the receiver.
Wiki, wikipedia
an online encyclopedia, i.e. a group of pages with information on a wide array of topics that different users can freely add and edit. Users should keep in mind that since a wiki is open for public editing, pages may be vandalized and some information may be inaccurate due to poor research. A verified wiki page will contain links to reliable websites and other sources.
Y
Yield farming
Yield farming involves providing liquidity to decentralized lending pools or trading protocols. Users earn profits by contributing their assets to a liquidity pool and receiving a portion of the trading fees generated by the pool.